#3/2018 URBAN CHALLENGES
June 18, 2018 (CD-ROM)=ISSN 2501-5591 ISSN-L 2501-5591 (Online)=ISSN 2559-4141
DAS, S and GHOSH, M. A critical evaluation of the Solid Waste Management System in selected wards of Jangipur Municipality within the Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as garbage, refuses or rubbish, is waste consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. Rapid urbanisation in India accelerates the generation of MSW, thereby producing major problems with its disposal. Improper handling of MSW creates environmental and health related hazards. In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the solid waste management within the Jangipur Municipality, a cantonment town of West Bengal. This paper portrays MSW generation, its collection, as well as the attention of local self-government to spreading diseases. The paper also highlights the issues and challenges related to MSW, while trying try to find out some scientific treatment for solid waste management.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), rapid urbanization, health hazards, scientific treatment
PERSSON, J. and EMANUELSSON, K. Using workshops to value urban green and blue surfaces
Various tools have been developed to improve environmental planning in cities. One of these is the Biotope Area Factor tool (BAF), which examines green and blue surfaces and how well they deliver a selected set of ecosystem services. In this study, 18 surfaces (to be used in an BEF tool) were weighted by six different expert groups in terms of six different environmental impacts areas (noise, urban drainage, biodiversity, air quality, recreation, local climate). The results revealed that different surfaces were considered good at different things and that no surface was best at everything. They also revealed that a surface in itself cannot solve a specific environmental problem e.g. noise or recreation, which must be borne in mind when using tools such as BAF. The experts involved in the workshops were greatly helped by a combination of individual weighting and open discussion and by ranking pictures of the surfaces along a continuum.
Keywords: biotope area factor, expert knowledge, urban landscape, valuation, workshop
JENSEN, K. and BIRCHE, M. Reconfiguring the urban landscape of La Plata through a green network
This investigation aims to incorporate new visions and tools that investigate the public green space as a fundamental element that structures urban life and shape our cities. In this sense, the city of La Plata presents an imbalance between its planned foundational quarter and the periphery. This is reflected by the periferic landscape that loses the main characteristics of the urban landscape of La Plata, fundamentally recognized by its avenues and green spaces every six blocks. This article proposes guidelines and criteria to reconfigure the landscape through a green network in order to improve the quality of the urban environment.
Keywords: urban planning, landscape, green network
NEGULESCU, M.-H. Considerations on the management of accessibility improvement impact on land use
This paper addresses a LUM (Land Use & Mobility) approach of accessibility improvement issues. It presents a deterministic radiography of the impact that a new transportation infrastructure has within its territory of influence, through the accessibility it provides. The study concludes on legislative and methodological improvements for developing a necessary, integrated LUM planning of accessibility, so as to achieve its highest capitalization and to mitigate its possible negative side-effects in the territory. The focus is on the key issues for developing a framework for a LUM planning of accessibility in the Romanian context.
Keywords: accessibility, LUM (Land Use & Mobility) planning, urban planning
ANTONESCU, D. and CIOCĂNEL, B. Territorial resilience: an economic perspective
During periods of economic growth or crisis / recession, territorial inequalities are becoming more acute. Thus, periods of economic growth determine prosperity for almost all regions, in varying proportions (as a rule, less developed regions benefit more from growth compared to developed ones), while in times of crisis the more developed regions recover more heavily than the least developed, requiring more time to reach the initial level (pre-crisis).
The recent global financial crisis has prompted the emergence and promotion of a concept that has also prompted the interest of decision-makers and academics. This concept is called economic resilience and represents "the capacity of a system to resist, absorb or overcome an internal or external economic shock". This interest is also supported by the need to promote solutions and measures to reduce the negative effects of the crisis or economic recession as quickly as possible. Although there is an opinion that the 2008 crisis has ended, not all NUTS-2 regions of the EU-28 have rebounded after the economic downturn. This article aims to invalidate or confirm the subsequent claim by analyzing two indicators relevant for regional performance assessment: GDP per capita and Employment rate. The disaggregated spatial analysis highlights the more nuanced impacts of the crisis. The varied temporal and spatial geography of the crisis raises interesting questions about the relative performance of the regions from the perspective of the two indicators.
Keywords: resilience, regions, territorial inequalities
SOLAYMANI, H. Applying Partial Order and SWOT analysis in water and land use planning to prioritize the adaptation strategies under changing climate
The present study is focused on the adaptation formulation in water sector under the IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management) approach. IWRM approach looks for a framework, which addresses policy objectives and the physical state in the water and land-use planning. This approach looks for the agreements between different water beneficiaries i.e., agriculture, natural system and industry and the exsiting water resources. The main objective of this approach can be conducted to explore adaptation actions to address implications on account of climate change impacts under various land-uses.
There are broad operations in IWRM approach that have been characterized for formulation of adaptation options. The priority of the differnt operations were achieved based on questionnaire, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats), and Partial Order Analysis (POA) at this research work. Four possible operations have been selected: management operations for agricultural, management operations for natural system purpose, changing crop pattern, and changing the land-use. The ranked adaptation operations under the changing climate were exposed at the end.
Keywords: IWRM, adaptation, water and land-use, SWOT, POA
STAN, A-I. River as center and/or barrier. The peripheral urban landscapes of Romanian Danube cities
For the cities on its shores, Danube represents a matrix of development, the origin of growth and the birth of a specific landscape, shaped up to the horizon of the transformations they have suffered during centuries. The landscapes of these cities gradually emerged and overlapped with the Danube natural landscape, taking over its conditions and constraints. Everything that could have influenced the man-made landscape, also have been distilled and adapted: the land declivity, the water’s strength, the wetlands, the forests, the wilderness areas, the islands, the fishing boats, the people themselves.
In the context of looking for a Danube brand, as the paper is part of the INTERREG-DANUrB project , beyond its existing borders, limits, barriers, the Danube urban landscape - seen both from the inside (from the city), and from the outside (from the water) is more than an impressing image, but speakes about how the river have given birth and created the people life opportunities, and also how it have imposed strong barriers and limits for urban development.
For the Romanian Danube cities, the peripheral landscapes have assimilated both the natural character, the ante-industrial identity, and the remains of the (post) industrial age, now showing a combining pattern of different and contradictory elements.
Keywords: water edge planning, waterfront landscape, industrial area, city barrier words
DOLANA, S. Ecotourism planning in a wetland of international importance and sustainable territorial development
Wetlands are complex ecosystems, which provide excellent conditions as habitats for numerous species. It has been known that continuous unsustainable urbanization negatively affects natural resources, especially wetlands. The study has underlined the need for proper planning in a wetland of international importance, as a key element in the development of a sustainable urban-rural scenario. This paper is a mixture of both inductive and deductive steps, which underline a case study based on the abductive method. The investigation consisted in analysing the ecotourism planning methods of several case studies and drawing a parallel between them and the study area, Old Danube-Măcin Arm, where this activity is not implemented. The key results show that ecotourism plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of an urban-rural area with the following properties: compact microregion and the adaptability of it to the challenges of the territory. Successful zoning and visitor management methods are used to mitigate the existing conflict between conservation of sensitive areas and the danger of exposing said areas to public use. Ecotourism, encouraged and managed by the community, becomes a way of consolidating the economic growth of the study area.
Keywords: ecotourism, wetland, urban, rural, sustainable development
BOȘTENARU DAN, M., MEILĂ A. German Church Architecture
This paper presents the heritage of Germans in Romania (Danube Swabians and Transylvanian Saxons) in relationship with the regions of emigration in the home country of Germany. Nowadays there are institutions dealing with the effects of immigration on art and architecture, including research institutions and museums, and the paper makes reference to these. Also, Italian research is interested in the province of Dacia and many conservation methods come from those lessons, while many of the buildings in the home country were inspired by Italian journeys. The heritage was subjected to disasters over time (earthquake, fire, war among others) and is facing abandonment today, for which reason conservation and management of these heritage buildings is important. This conservation includes also digital conservation, such as CAD virtual reconstruction and laser scanning.
The confessional history has been different, with the Saxons arriving before the church Reformation and becoming protestant, while the Swabians arrived as part of the Counter-Reform of Emperor Maria Theresia of the Habsburgs. This and the position of the dominant architecture programme for the respective periods of history of architecture determined the position of the churches of different confessions in the city. In 2017, 500 years of Reformation were celebrated, which made the question of confession topical and the agreement today between Christians. Also, the basic professions of the immigrants influenced how the church architecture spread from urban to rural areas.
Research methods included looking into both scientific literature and fiction dealing with the issue of German churches and the confessional history, research in the archives on urbanism issues, visit of the sites. Baden-Württemberg, the home of the Swabians, features even more important Baroque heritage after the emigration of the Danube Swabians, which opens the questions for incentives of the movement of population that time.
Keywords: religious architecture, Danube Swabians, Transylvanian Saxons, Baroque, migration
COSMA, I-G. Waste recycling, the new-old challenge for sustainable urban development
At present, there are many challenges facing cities and affecting their ability to create jobs and prosperity, without endangering the environment and resources. Among the most common urban challenges we can list traffic congestion, inadequate housing, air, soil and water pollution, green areas, waste of all kinds etc. These challenges can be overcome in order to continue sustainable urban development based on resource efficiency and aiming at reducing pollution and poverty. The future of cities includes opportunities for all inhabitants, reducing economic and social inequalities.
Seen as opportunity and challenge at the same time, waste recycling due to the economic and social growth of cities has a positive impact on the local environment (air, water, land, human health etc.). Therefore, the complexity, costs and coordination of waste management require the involvement of all stakeholders, but also financial resources, including the identification of new technologies, research actions and eco-innovation.
This article aims to address, in a synthetic way, the issue of urban waste recycling, which is currently considered as a major source of urban pollution, an important factor affecting the quality of life and living, as well as the prospects for sustainable urban development.
Keywords: Bio-economy, recyclable materials, sustainable urban development
ANTONESCU, R-M. Applying DPSIR Model to sustainable territorial development, in South-Muntenia Region
Generally speaking, conceptual models are used to identify the relationships between key-factors of a system (economic, social, environmental, etc.) and they represent the methodological basis for the development of some programs and strategies.
The DPSIR Model (Drivers–Pressures–State–Impact-Responses Model), designed in the late 1990s, is considered one of the most useful tools for reporting and analysing environmental issues and its appliance varies from global systems to specific areas of interest (river basins, protected areas, etc.). Frequently, international organizations apply it in the framework of the evaluation of sustainable development initiatives, in order to identify the existing relationships between different processes and phenomena. After 1999s, the DPSIR Model was taken over by the Environmental European Agency (EEA) and was widely used in environmental studies and reviews in EU regions and Member States.
This article aims to synthesize the constituent elements of the DPSIR Model. Also, it presents an application of the model in the South-Muntenia region.
Keywords: DPSIR Model, territorial development, sustainability, Inequalities
SANSEBEȘ, R-M. My own space. The study of our childhood playground and the rules that self-regulated the play
I wanted this exercise of imagination to make a brief analysis of the playground and the way we managed to organize it during childhood. Our space is subjectively centered. It is organized around us and our needs. Most of the time this space is organized around the home. The analysis of our childhood playground focus on the elements and sub-elements that determine the sense of community. My space is defined as the space in which I identify myself, where I find myself, I share memories and I feel a sense of belonging.
The longer time we spend in a certain space, the more we get to know its little secrets, discover it and thus identify with it. The perception of space is subjective, depending on the motivations of each subject and past experiences. We can lear and study the inherited rules from the way we were protecting the garden, retaining the same parking lot or by the way we organised the games in the given space. The space had also to satisfy emotional needs so that the sense of belonging can create social relationships.
Architectural space must be understood as the mental image of the built environment, a space with rules that derive from basic human relations, a space that is organised by feelings and social connections.
Keywords: urban planning, landscape, research, the sense of community, the sense of belonging, self-regulating spaces, playground analysis, social connections, child psychology, introspection, memory