2023 ISSN-L 2501-5591 (Online)=ISSN 2559-4141
SHEHU, P., AZI MUSA, B., BITRUS, M.E., YAKUBU, A.T. - Analysis and mapping of areas vulnerable to flood in Yola Metropolis
Intensification in the occurrence of floods globally and indeed in Nigeria with their devastating impacts on lives and properties is worrisome. To this end, the study involved Analysis and Mapping of Areas Vulnerable to Flood in Yola Metropolis. The purposive sampling technique was applied to select five judged worst flood vulnerable areas. Data were acquired through field observation, historical records, and hydrological data. Geographic Information System and Global Positioning System were applied in processing acquired spatial information. The result showed that the bulk of the study area is exposed to flood due to its low altitude, most of the areas are made up of planes with a gradient less than 1.6 thus highly vulnerable, areas with a gradient of 1.7 to 4.5 were marginally vulnerable and most of the areas were already developed, thereby increasing the susceptibility of the inhabitants to flood. Most parts of the communities were within a kilometre to river Benue and Chonji which is high vulnerability to flood. Doubeli, Jambutu, Limawa, and Rumde areas are within the zones with a high tendency for flow accumulation while the Bole-Yolde Pate ward is within areas with low tendency. Also, identified that clay soil is highly vulnerable due to its low infiltration, clay-loam is vulnerable, while sandy and sandy-loam which have high infiltration are not vulnerable. The study concludes and recommends that Government should come up with a policy that restricts development along with or around flood vulnerable areas and advice those already living in such areas to relocate. Also, results obtained in this study could be used by stakeholders and the government as a guide for effective flood management.
Keywords: Keywords: Analysis; Flood Incidence; Mapping; Vulnerable Areas.
MEDJOUEL, M., FARHI, A. - Capital of Southern Algeria: the Oasis Town of Ouargla, between image, staging and urban landscape during French colonization (1854-1962)
Through the years, the Algerian Sahara space have had different status: a nomadic space, a scientific space (as a privileged field of research and study expeditions), and then industrial space with the discovery and the exploitation of oil deposits in Ouargla (1956). Today, the Sahara is mainly a touristic destination.
Therefore, this paper aims to review the meanders of a particular course of change of status that the capital of the Algerian South, the oasis city of Ouargla, has known since its initial historic centre’s formation until the Algerian Independence (1962). Our approach is based on the study of the successive transformations of Ouargla’s image and its urban landscape, mainly during the period of the French occupation of this region (1854-1962) , in order to enhance its "traditional" and "integrated" built environment which was staged during the first half of the 20th century. This time frame has undoubtedly contributed to the transformation and enhancement of the urban space of Ouargla, and has changed the image of the city by making it more attractive acquiring a new status accordingly: a popular Saharan touristic destination. This status is unfortunately lost today due to the effects of globalization and mismanagement.
In this paper, we will try to define the image of the city and to draw its portrait using the urban and architectural characteristics presented in the valuable iconography of the time (photographs, maps, postcards, drawings, engravings, etc.) depicting the urban and Saharan landscape of Ouargla in order to proceed to the reconquest of this lost touristic status through a new and more adequate image.
Keywords: urban staging, image of the city, urban landscape, urban space, traditional built, tourist enhancement, French colonisation, Sahara, Ouargla.
DOLANA, S. - The port cities' centrality and intermediacy: Constanța, Düsseldorf, Linz, and Rotterdam
In the 1990s, two ideas emerged regarding cities' centrality and intermediacy. These concepts are still applicable today, particularly for multi-scale analyses of port cities. Due to the ports' connections to more distant regions, port cities are both central and intermediate in their region. Thus, in her dissertation, the author created two indices to assess port cities' centrality (a measure of urban function) and intermediacy (a measure of port function). The European Union (EU) has the most consistent system for classifying regions and sharing data. The indices can, therefore, only be applied to EU port cities.
The author calculated the indices for four port cities in this paper: Constanța, Düsseldorf, Linz, and Rotterdam. All selected cities had the necessary data for calculating the indices, but certain national maritime data only applied to seaport cities. Therefore, the intermediacy index results from the selected riverport cities, Düsseldorf and Linz, were nowhere near accurate.
As evidenced by Düsseldorf, the most central city studied, riverport city data did matter in the normalisation process of the data used to calculate the centrality index. Despite this, Rotterdam was the most important port city among those examined, scoring highly on both centrality and intermediacy due to its status as the EU's largest and most significant port. Consequently, the author confirmed the paper's hypothesis that Rotterdam will be ranked first.
This paper concludes that Rotterdam has experienced greater urban and port growth than Constanța due to its high scores. Even though Constanța is a strategic location, its scores for centrality and intermediacy were low.
Keywords: Urban port network; transport; population; economy; LAU; FUA; NUTS.
CIVEIRA, G. - Landscape structure in urban and peri urban areas in the Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires (MRBA)
Urban and peri urban landscapes, as well as rural landscapes, exhibit diverse spatial patterns related to components or uses diversity (e.g: agricultural lots, forests, urban reserves, city settlements among others). Landscape ecology permits spatial understanding based on three particular characteristics: structure, functions and change. In this research, landscape indexes in urban and peri urban areas in the Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires (MRBA) were identified. The associated research hypothesis states that: landscape characteristics will be differentially affected according to urbanization level (urban and peri urban). Landscape indexes (estimated and measured) were made for each municipality: heterogeneity; diversity, dominance; patch density. Also, the following levels were analysed: urban and peri urban; urbanization circular distribution (crowns): 1, 2, 3, 4 and urbanization radial distribution (subzones): North West and South. Landscape quantitative indexes were associated with uses: extensive agriculture: EA; intensive agriculture: IA; urban and peri-urban agriculture: UPA; green areas: GA; urban use: URB. EA and IA were affected according to urbanization level and crown (p <0.05). UPA and GA presented significant differences between subzones and crowns: fourth crown and southern presented higher UPA percentages. In the southern subzone, urban and peri urban expansion occurred diminishing natural ecosystems and augmenting EA and IA uses. UPA presented a wide variation in the total number of patches between municipalities. The number and the average surface of the patches expressed as patches density presented differences between municipalities. Diversity index presented differences between municipalities, presenting values ranging between 0.18 and 1.09 in CABA and Berazategui, respectively. The results showed that dominance of EA and IA uses with greater surfaces may affect the occurrence of other natural uses in the landscape. Matrix characteristics showed a degree of fragmentation influenced by the differential heterogeneity between municipalities. Vegetated uses human uses (EA, EI, GA, UPA) can help decrease landscape fragmentation, increase diversity conservation and homogenization in MRBA and as seen in regions worldwide. MRBA characteristics come from the original ecosystem transformation, which generated a fragile landscape that requires human actions over time in order to keep urban ecosystem working. This research could be useful to evaluate landscape ecological processes within MRBA and mega cities worldwide.
Keywords: landscape uses; landscape ecology; landscape indexes; urban vegetated uses
LLOPIS ALVAREZ, A., NJÅ, O. - Approaching societal safety from the urban perspective
The interaction of individuals with their environment is continuous and dynamic. This interaction implies that the urban territory and community are mutually modified. The frame conditions of the urban community provide the individuals with their perceptions of safety. Safety is seen as a key element for the use of public space, as well as a relevant indicator for people’s quality of life. The various forms of interactions can lead to relevant repercussions on the feeling of safety experienced in certain spaces, which in turn will influence their use, generating a spiral restricting the use of some spaces or stimulating the frequentation of others. Approaching the concept of societal safety by adopting systems safety engineering raises interesting discussions. The legal, the moral and the cultural frameworks need to be modelled in its social contexts by use of constraints and control structures. We emphasize that our approach does not encourage comprehensive surveillance of people, but rather address levels of societal safety knowledge needed amongst urban planners. Given the importance of conflicts in the perception of safety, a conciliation mechanism should be created, which requires political will, adequate legislation and collective effectiveness. This paper is a contribution to assess the spatial conditions related to the safety concept. It includes developing constraints by using system safety theory that will form the framework for social and urban practice and performance seen from the urban planning perspective.
Keywords: Societal safety; system theory; community behaviour; citizen coexistence; quality to urban life; spatial conditions; collective effectiveness; migration process.
PAMBILA F., G., LUPALA M., J and KAZAURA G., W. - Imposed mindset effects? Community participation in master planning and implementation processes in Sub Saharan Africa —a Review
Community participation in master planning and implementation processes in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) has been given little attention despite the fact that it increases a sense of ownership and the chances of plans implementation. This study firstly, examines community participation practices in master planning and implementation processes in four shifted capital cities of Abuja, Dodoma, Gaborone and Lilongwe and secondly, recommends for policy changes. This study gathered information through literature review whereby a total of one hundred and two (n=102) documents were reviewed. Data was analysed using content analysis by identifying the common themes from empirical and theoretical literatures then comparing and synthesising them based on convergence discourses. The results show that bureaucrats’ pay less attention to integration of local knowledge coupled with overlooking the socio-economic and cultural aspects of communities in master planning and implementation processes. Bureaucrats are reported to embrace western planning concepts and practices paired with ineffective communication, lack of transparency, awareness, an inclusive ideas generation, top-down decision making and power imbalance. The sidelining attitude of community needs and preferences has resulted into polarisation of cities into haves and have-nots. This study recommends active engagement of Civil Societies Organisations (CSOs) in planning and implementation processes to act as watchdogs of planning systems. This study further stresses on conducting routine capacity building to bureaucrats to improve community engagement and constant revisit of available legal tools, monitoring and evaluation frameworks to effect community engagement in planning and implementation stages. These findings are worthwhile to policymakers, urban planners and the private sector to prepare plans which are community centered and enhance inclusive and sustainable development in SSA.
Keywords: Community participation; Master planning; Participation; Implementation and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
AL-BASHTAWI M. - Front door – Back door. A Story
The article brings into discussion the conclusions of a long-term field analysis on the housing conditions provided by the socialist high-rise districts. The analysis focused on some details that might be greatly improved at minimum costs, such as the main accesses to the condominiums.
The front doors had been always considered an expression of the owners self-esteem and pride. They also represent a place of significance for the culture and tradition of a community.
It is pretty obvious that the way the front doors had been designed during the period between the 50s and the late 80s suffered from a decreasing respect for the people brought from the countryside area to accomplish the forced industrialization 5-years Plans, to be sheltered in the new housing districts, and an increasing struggle to reduce by all means the costs of construction, reflected in poorer and poorer finishes and plumbing’s but less in structures that proved to be resistant during the big earthquakes of 1977 and 1990.
Thus, the analysis intended to provide an initial limited set of criteria for the evaluation of the front doors from different points of view and basis for the decisions on minimal interventions to improve the quality of these significant elements, with consequences to be expected on the quality of housing conditions for the residents.
Keywords: front door; culture; communist blocks; housing conditions; design; urban planning.
KOÇİ M. - Examınatıon of desıng crıterıa for chıldren's playgrounds; the Tatvan Boardwalk Case Study
In the era when concretization has increased and technology has developed, physical activity of children has also decreased in parallel with these developments. Decreased physical activity negatively affects the physical, mental and social development of children. Decreasing activity levels have increased the importance of children's playgrounds as a result of intense urbanization. Proper planning and design of children's playgrounds positively affects the quality of activity in playgrounds. In this study, the design criteria of children's playgrounds was scrutinized under the headings of ‘Safety,’ ‘Durability,’ ‘Ease of Use,’ Aesthetics,’ ‘Floor Element Selection,’ ‘Playground Equipment Selection,’ ‘Flora Selection,’ and ‘Topography According to Ground Infrastructural Features.’ Within the scope of this study, the children's playgrounds located along the boardwalk of Bitlis province’s Tatvan provincial district were examined based on design criteria according to their qualitative characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study process. As a result of the study, it was determined that said children's playgrounds along the Tatvan coastline were not built according to universal design criteria.
Keywords: playgrounds; universality; children.