#6/2021 PLANNING (2)
2021 ISSN-L 2501-5591 (Online)=ISSN 2559-4141
SIREL, A. - An analysis of the relationship between transport and urban structure in Istanbul
In the last thirty years of globalization, the world has seen comprehensive technological and economic change. In this new order, where geographic locations between countries are blurred or eliminated, new commercial relationships have been established with countries that were previously considered too remote. In turn, rapid global population growth, migration and urbanization have created new transport demands. Due to the symbiotic relationship between transport networks and urban structure, strategic planning that integrates the two factors has become increasingly important. In this context, this study aims to determine the interrelationship between transport and urban structure in Turkey at the national level, and in Istanbul at the city level. Following analysis, potential opportunities, threats and policy recommendations are presented.
Keywords: Urbanization; urban development; land use; transport system; Istanbul.
JAMIL, O. - Biodiversity integration in coastal urban planning of Abu Dhabi: a case study of South Mussafah
Biodiversity integration in contemporary coastal cities is a growing global concern for urban planners today. Coastal cities can host a high richness of urban biodiversity which can assist in providing cultural and environmental ecosystem services. That said, there is limited inclusion of biodiversity in most planning instruments, as they are designed based on public health, safety, and economic growth. In this light, the research examines what components of biodiversity can be sustainably integrated into neighbourhood master plans, urban policies, design strategies, and land-use zoning within the context of Abu Dhabi coastline, the United Arab Emirates as a case study. The research objective is to present a review of the current challenges facing biodiversity in the emirate by assessing the present legislations, governmental plans, and policies and then proposing solutions that can be adapted to counteract the erosion of its natural treasures. For this purpose, experts, and professionals working in the field of biodiversity conservation, urban development, and policymaking, were interviewed for primary information. Additional data were collected through ArcGIS tool analysis, published information from governmental and non-governmental sources to cultivate strategic ecological solutions. This includes providing planning recommendations for protecting urban biodiversity based on ecological knowledge while focusing on the inclusion of environmental issues in the urban development planning process.
Keywords: Climate change; Habitat protection; Urban resilience; Sustainable development; Coastal cities.
ISLAM, Md. S. S. and SHARIF, S. S. B. - Assessing the role of tea stalls as third places in Rajshahi, Bangladesh
According to author Ray Oldenburg, third places are spaces used by people to escape the routine of home and work. Conversations, discussions, hangouts, jokes and laughter are main activities of these social spaces. Different places in different context such as Coffee shops, bars, taverns, pubs act as third places. However, due to rapid urbanization, the social life of the people is hardly paid attention to, and infrastructures are preferred rather than public spaces. Tea stalls are small, shabby structures scattered about throughout the cities and even rural areas of Bangladesh that sell tea and snacks. Looking at the characteristics of third places, and observing the stalls, it becomes evident that these local tea stalls also act as third places. This paper attempts to assess and measure the performance of various types of tea stalls as third places in Rajshahi city. A questionnaire survey was designed to measure their performance. Based on the results and participant observation methods, it was seen that tea stalls act as potent third places. As lives are becoming more mechanized and social spaces are shrinking, third places can fight the lack of accessible, inclusive social places and enhancing the experience of city for the people.
Keywords: Third places; tea stalls; city; urban design; urbanism; Rajshahi.
MODESTUS J. M. - The capacity of urban local authorities in regularizing informal settlements in Tanzania
Informal urbanization is one of the phenomenon that continue to shape the emergent city spatial patterns in the developing world. Informality is not only prevalent in human settlements but also in livelihood activities in which the majority of the urban residents earn their living. In the Tanzanian context, it has been established that large cities are predominantly informal at an average rate of 50 per cent of their built up areas. Although studies have shown the potential of unplanned settlements to provide housing for the poor, the unguided nature of informal land development in most peri-urban areas undermines the achievement of sustainable development. This is attributed to the fact that informality limits the possibilities of service provision and future settlement upgrading. In some cities, housing densities have reached prohibitive levels making access to, and provision of roads and sanitation very difficult. In many countries, urban local government authorities have been entrusted among other duties to regularize informal settlements. However, these authorities have capacity limitation to effectively regularize and prevent further consolidation of informal settlements. This paper examines the capacity of urban local authorities in regularizing settlements in Tanzania. Six urban authorities are being examined based on official interviews and physical observations that were carried between September and October 2016. Results show that only 39 percent of the requisite human resources, 42 percent of the equipment and an average of 4.2 square meter per person office space were available. Most of the authorities did not have equipment for opening up roads and only 42 percent of the survey and ICT equipment were available. This paper recommends the use of private planning and surveying firms to complement government efforts and hasten the speed of regularizing informal settlements in Tanzania.
Keywords: Capacity; Urban Local Authorities; Regularization; Tanzania.
JOHNSON Pp. R. - Understanding Local Perceptions to Guide Poverty and Housing Policy: An Urban Planning Case Study in Crookston, Minnesota
Often associated more with larger cities, small towns such as Crookston, Minnesota, often face unique urban planning challenges, including quality, affordable housing and policy pertaining to equity and poverty. Housing affordability is increasingly a major issue in urban planning, with such shortages presenting special difficulties due to correlations with poverty and low-wage workers. Even in small, rural communities, where population has been largely on the decline, quality, affordable housing can still be difficult to obtain – especially for low to middle-income families. These challenges in rural communities can correlate with racial and ethnic divisions. Contributing to the problem is the fact that policy can sometimes either make the situation worse or be ineffective due to public perception and local politics. Government policies have even perpetuated pre-existing market racial and ethnic biases. Crookston, located in the northwest of Minnesota, USA, is a town with just such policy and community concerns. Two key challenges that threaten social equity and long-term economic viability for the community are specifically systemic, entrenched poverty in the Hispanic population and a lack of affordable, quality housing. The State of Minnesota has identified this as a problem in need of policy support. An incorrect understanding of public perception, for example, could easily lead to well-meaning, but ineffective urban planning policy. This study uses a survey instrument to understand the broad opinions, perceptions, and beliefs of the local population regarding poverty, their own financial position, the housing shortage, different mechanisms for helping to solve problems, reasons people are in poverty or are financially successful, and relevant taxation, subsidies, and other measures. Survey results provide assistance area urban planning policymakers in decisions that are most likely to be effective.
Keywords: Entrenched poverty, equity, affordable housing, education.
AK M., GÜNEŞ GÖLBEY A. - The role of urban green spaces in sustainable urban planning
Sustainable urban development is the phenomenon of battling environmental problems due to reasons such as increasing urbanization and gradual deterioration of the ecosystem. This phenomenon, which is developing around the world, is a subject open to discussion. This article highlights the importance of urban open and green spaces in the discussion of creating sustainable cities. In this context, the sustainable city criteria and the ecosystem services provided by urban open and green spaces were compared. In this context, seven different sustainable city criteria were evaluated: European Green Capital Award, European Green Flag Award, European Environment Agency Urban Metabolism Framework, European Foundation Urban Sustainability Indicators, Green City Index, Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities and STAR Community Assessment System. The findings confirm the importance of urban open and green spaces in terms of sustainable urban development.
Keywords: Sustainability, Urban Development, Green Spaces
DRAGHIA M. - The peri-urbanisation effect: Emerging functional spatial patterns in Romania. Case study on 4 major cities: Brașov, Cluj-Napoca, Iași and Timișoara
Spatial planning is currently facing conceptual and practical challenges caused by an increasing number of issues required to be addressed at the intercommunal level. The aim of this paper is to discuss the concept of functional urban areas as emerging spatial patterns generated by the extensive peri-urbanisation process in the Romanian territory, employing both morphological and functional analytical approaches. The study focuses on the analysis of the territorial dynamics registered over the past 10 years around the major urban centres in Romania. The methodology compares two different contours – on one hand, the administrative limits of the metropolitan areas set according to the Government Decision (GD 998/ 2008) and on the other hand, the analytical limits of the functional urban areas, delineated through a recent World Bank’s study. The selected case studies include four major cities in the Romanian settlement’s network, namely Brașov, Cluj-Napoca, Iași and Timișoara, considered among the fastest growing urban centres in the past decade. The results of this study confirm the initial hypothesis that the spatial impact of peri-urbanisation around large urban centres (mainly reflected by population growth, increase in the built-up area and the development of residential units) is not limited to the outline of the current metropolitan areas. Based on this argument, we support the need to review the current boundaries of the metropolitan areas, following a set of methodological guidelines driven by both morphological and functional considerations. This approach will not only solve the problem of updating territories in which priority investments from European and national financing programs will be made, but it will also provide a well-grounded preliminary framework for a potential future metropolitan reform.
Keywords: spatial planning, intercommunity, functional urban areas, territorial dynamics, metropolitan areas